Spirit and Intent
As Long as the Rivers Flow
Larry Loyie tells his personal story of the last summer he spent at his Cree home prior to being sent to a government-sponsored residential school. He includes taking care of an abandoned baby owl, watching grandmother make moccasins and kill a grizzly bear and preparing with the family for hunting and gathering trip.
Loyie, O. L., Brissenden, C., & Holmlund, H. D. (2003). As long as the rivers flow. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre.
Claire and Her Grandfather
Claire and her grandfather, an aboriginal elder, discuss the contributions Indigenous peoples have made related to food, transportation, exploration, the arts and technology. Claire comes to understand her culture and is able then better able to share her family’s history and culture with her classmates. Available in pdf and audio formats.
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. (2011). Claire and her grandfather. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
Eight-year-old Margaret Pokiak has set her sights on learning to read, even though it means leaving her village in the high Arctic. Faced with unceasing pressure, her father finally agrees to let her make the five-day journey to attend school, but he warns Margaret of the terrors of residential schools. At school Margaret soon encounters the Raven, a black-cloaked nun with a hooked nose and bony fingers that resemble claws. She immediately dislikes the strong-willed young Margaret. Intending to humiliate her, the heartless Raven gives gray stockings to all the girls -- all except Margaret, who gets red ones. In an instant Margaret is the laughingstock of the entire school. In the face of such cruelty, Margaret refuses to be intimidated and bravely gets rid of the stockings. Although a sympathetic nun stands up for Margaret, in the end it is this brave young girl who gives the Raven a lesson in the power of human dignity. Complemented by archival photos from Margaret Pokiak-Fenton's collection and striking artworks from Liz Amini-Holmes, this inspiring first-person account of a plucky girl's determination to confront her tormentor will linger with young readers (Publisher).
Jordan-Fenton, C., Pokiak-Fenton, M., & Amini-Holmes, L. (2010). Fatty legs (9th ed.). Toronto, ON: Annick Press.
Office of the Treaty Commissioner (Ed.). (2008). The First Nations struggle to be recognized: A treaty resource guide for grade 5 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.otc.ca/public/uploads/resource_photo/Grade_5_TFNSBR.pdf
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2010). The learning circle: Classroom activities on First Nations in Canada ages 8-11. Ottawa, ON: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2010). The learning circle: Classroom activities on First Nations in Canada ages 12-14. Ottawa, ON: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Price, R. (1991). Legacy: Indian treaty relationships. Edmonton, AB: Plains Publisher.
Bouchard, D., & Sapp, A. (2007). Nokum is my teacher. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Not My Girl
Margaret can’t wait to see her family, but her homecoming is not what she expected. Based on the true story of Margaret Pokiak-Fenton, and complemented by evocative illustrations, Not My Girl makes the original, award-winning memoir, A Stranger at Home, accessible to younger children. It is also a sequel to the picture book When I Was Eight. A poignant story of a determined young girl’s struggle to belong, it will both move and inspire readers everywhere (Publisher).
Jordan-Fenton, C., Grimard, G., & Pokiak-Fenton, M. (2014). Not my girl. Toronto, ON: Annick Press.
Office of the Treaty Commissioner. (2008). Revival of the treaty relationship, living in harmony: A treaty resource guide for grade 6 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.otc.ca/public/uploads/resource_photo/Grade_6_ROTTRLIH.pdf
Campbell, N. I., & LaFave, K. (2005). Shi-shi-etko. Toronto: Groundwood Books.
Campbell, N. I., & LaFave, K. (2008). Shin-chi's canoe. Toronto: Groundwood Books.
Stranger At Home
Traveling to be reunited with her family in the arctic, 10-year-old Margaret Pokiak can hardly contain her excitement. It's been two years since her parents delivered her to the school run by the dark-cloaked nuns and brothers. Coming ashore, Margaret spots her family, but her mother barely recognizes her, screaming, "Not my girl." Margaret realizes she is now marked as an outsider. And Margaret is an outsider: she has forgotten the language and stories of her people, and she can't even stomach the food her mother prepares. However, Margaret gradually relearns her language and her family's way of living. Along the way, she discovers how important it is to remain true to the ways of her people--and to herself. Highlighted by archival photos and striking artwork, this first-person account of a young girl's struggle to find her place will inspire young readers to ask what it means to belong (Publisher).
Jordan-Fenton, C., Pokiak-Fenton, M., & Amini-Holmes, L. (2011). A stranger at home (3rd ed.). Toronto, ON: Annick Press.
Sugar Falls: A Residential School Story
A school assignment to interview a residential school survivor leads Daniel to Betsy, his friend's grandmother, who tells him her story. Abandoned as a young child, Betsy was soon adopted into a loving family. A few short years later, at the age of 8, everything changed. Betsy was taken away to a residential school. There she was forced to endure abuse and indignity, but Betsy recalled the words her father spoke to her at Sugar Falls — words that gave her the resilience, strength, and determination to survive (Publisher).
Robertson, D., & Henderson, S. B. (2011). Sugar Falls: A residential school story. Winnipeg, MB: HighWater Press.
Treaty Essential Learnings: We Are All Treaty People
The Treaty Essential Learnings document is a reference guide to understanding the foundational aspects of the “Teaching Treaties in the Classroom” program. The Treaty Essential Learnings are those topics, concepts and understandings of treaties and the treaty relationship that students should be expected to know by the end of Grade 12.
Office of the Treaty Commissioner. (2008). Treaty essential learnings: We are all treaty people. Retrieved from http://www.otc.ca/public/uploads/resource_photo/TELS.pdf
When I was Eight
Bestselling memoir Fatty Legs for younger readers. Olemaun is eight and knows a lot of things. But she does not know how to read. Ignoring her father's warnings, she travels far from her Arctic home to the outsiders' school to learn. The nuns at the school call her Margaret. They cut off her long hair and force her to do menial chores, but she remains undaunted. Her tenacity draws the attention of a black-cloaked nun who tries to break her spirit at every turn. But the young girl is more determined than ever to learn how to read. Based on the true story of Margaret Pokiak-Fenton, and complemented by stunning illustrations, When I Was Eight makes the bestselling Fatty Legs accessible to younger readers. Now they, too, can meet this remarkable girl who reminds us what power we hold when we can read.
Jordan-Fenton, C., Pokiak-Fenton, M., & Grimard, G. (2013). When I was eight (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Annick Press.
Nokum is My Teacher
Bouchard, D. (2010, October 15). Nokum is My Teacher [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17QYnw5xzWE
bravofact. (2011, July 5). Shi-shi-etko [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKErhCGjSDE
As Long As the Rivers Flow Novel Study
Beaudin, S. (2004). As long as the river flows: Novel study (J. R. Landry, Ed.). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from Office of the Treaty Commissioner website: http://otctreatyteachernovelstudy.wikispaces.com/file/view/novelstudy-As%20long%20as%20the%20RiversFlow.pdf/133849955/novelstudy-As%20long%20as%20the%20RiversFlow.pdf
Claire and Her Grandfather
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. (n.d.). Claire and her grandmother. Retrieved from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada website: http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ-ACH/STAGING/texte-text/lr_ks_rr_claire_1341932502024_eng.pdf
Four Directions Teachings
Fourdirectionsteachings.com Home. (2015). Retrieved May 9, 2018, from Four Directions Teachings website: http://www.fourdirectionsteachings.com/